Cart News

How to Locate a CART Provider

What to Expect From a CART Provider

CART Consumer Bill of Rights

CART Provider Bill of Rights

Background paper on alternative methods

CART in the Classroom

Meeting the Communication Needs of Children in School

Meeting the Communication Needs of Postsecondary Students

CART in the Courtroom

Remote CART

Deaf, Hard-of-Hearing Resources

CART Legal Decisions

Benefits of CART

CART Environments

Digital Hearing Aids





The primary purpose of the Communication Access Information Center is to provide information of use to people employing or in need of Communication Access Realtime Translation (CART), also known as realtime captioning. The site is sponsored by the National Court Reporters Foundation and supported by the National Court Reporters Association's CART Task Force. Click here for information on what NCRA is doing to increase the number of available CART providers how to increase leverage on mt4.

What Exactly Is CART?

Communication Access Realtime Translation (CART) is the instant translation of the spoken word into English text using a stenotype machine, notebook computer and realtime software. The text appears on a computer monitor or other display. This technology is primarily used by people who are late-deafened, oral deaf, hard-of-hearing, or have cochlear implants. Culturally deaf individuals also make use of CART in certain situations. Please keep in mind that CART is also often referred to as realtime captioning

The Americans with Disabilities Act specifically recognized CART as an assistive technology which affords "effective communication access." Thus communication access more aptly describes a CART provider's role and distinguishes CART from realtime reporting in a traditional litigation setting.

Communication Access Realtime Translation is an evolving and maturing profession, and the available technology associated with CART is rapidly advancing. Consequently, the information and guidelines listed here will be updated from time to time. Please check in often.

CART in the Classroom: Meeting the Communication Access Needs of Students Requires an Individual Approach

Students with hearing loss who have access to assistive technology such as CART are provided with the same opportunities to learn and grow as hearing students. This growing technology allows the student to take an active role in the classroom and meet his or her potential as a scholar. (PDF format) More...

NCRA Develops New Certifications for CART and Captioning

With Congress appropriating millions of dollars in order to establish and strengthen realtime writing programs, CART and captioning have increased in popularity as a profession Schools receiving federal funds will train writers in order to meet the mandates set in the Telecommunications Act of 1996, which requires all new television programming to be 100 percent captioned by 2006 and allows greater CART access to those with communication access needs. More...

New Brochure Helps Consumers Market CART

CART brochure Are you looking for a tool to help explain CART to those who will decide whether or not the service will be provided? If so, NCRA’s new CART marketing brochure, “CART: Providing Equal Access to People Who Are Deaf or Hard of Hearing,” might be just the thing you’re looking for. The brochure offers a brief definition of CART, the many environments where it can prove effective, the benefits of employing this communication access service and where to go for more information.

Click here to view an Adobe version of the brochure. To purchase copies, call 800-272-6272 (TTY 703-556-6289 or or visit the NCRA Online Store here.

NCRF/AJF Introduce Model Guidelines for CART in the Courtroom

To provide continuity in the provision of CART services in the legal setting, the National Court Reporters Foundation and the American Judges Foundation have developed model guidelines for the use of CART in the courtroom that offer a structure from which courts can draw in order to meet their individual circumstances. Courts can then manage the accessibility of CART services for people with hearing loss in a uniform and effective manner, benefiting both the court and the CART consumers. View the model guidelines.

How to Locate a CART Provider

If you're in need of CART, whether for the classroom, a doctor's visit or any other setting, here are some of the variables you need to consider when selecting a CART provider. You'll also find links to the two primary online directories of CART providers.

What Are the Benefits of CART in the Classroom?

The following paper, CART in the Classroom: How to Make Realtime Captioning Work for You, presented at the Instructional Technology and Education of the Deaf symposium at the National Technical Institute for the Deaf in June 2001, explains the benefits of CART for students who are deaf or hard-of-hearing in an educational setting. The paper also discusses how CART providers can work effectively with instructors and coordinators of services to ensure that students with hearing loss receive the best communication access possible.

Researcher Aaron Steinfeld wrote his dissertation on the benefits of captions in the classroom setting. When he presented this information at a convention of the Alexander Graham Bell Association for the Deaf and Hard of Hearing (AG Bell), he was inundated with requests on the studies he used as starting point. He has allowed us to reprint this essay, in which he lists a number of those references, for the use of people who are petitioning for the use of CART in the classroom.

Meeting the Communication Needs of Children in School

The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) addresses the needs of children with disabilities. The following FAQ explains the procedure that should be undertaken for obtaining CART or some other communication access service in the education setting from elementary school through high school. Check out our IDEA FAQ as well as our State Education Agency Listings.

Meeting the Communication Needs of Postsecondary Students

Although CART is recognized in the Americans With Disabilities Act as an assistive technology which affords "effective communication access," obtaining CART service at some universities and colleges can often prove to be a challenge. Here are some resources that can help in your efforts to obtain CART in the postsecondary setting.

CART Legal Decisions

Check in to see the latest legal decisions affecting the terms under which CART is provided.

About NCRF

The National Court Reporters Foundation supports the court reporting and captioning professions through philanthropic activities funded through charitable contributions. Learn more about NCRF by visiting their web site.

About NCRA

NCRA is a 27,000-member nonprofit organization representing the judicial reporting and captioning professions. Members include official court reporters, deposition reporters, broadcast captioners, providers of realtime communication access services for deaf and hard-of-hearing people, and others who capture and convert the spoken word into information bases and readable formats. Additional information is available by calling 800-272-6272 (TTY 703-556-6289), visiting NCRA Online, or via e-mail.

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